India’s Cheteshwar Pujara scored a century to lead a fight back against Australia in Adelaide.
The visitors recovered from a difficult start to finish day one 250-9. India skipper Virat Kohli managed only three runs after being caught by a diving Usman Khawaja at gully.
Pujara batted for six hours to score 123 before being run out by Pat Cummins' direct hit to end the day's play in Adelaide.
The Aussies are playing their first home Test series since March's ball-tampering scandal.
Australia captain Tim Paine had spoken about rebuilding his side's relationship with its fans prior to the match after former skipper Steve Smith was banned along with David Warner and Cameron Bancroft for the ball-tampering incidents in the third Test against South Africa in Cape Town.